Background and Resources

Subtopic 1: Ethics and Values

Activity 1.1

Activity 1.2

Activity 1.3

Subtopic 2: Bioethical Problems Identification

Activity 2.1

Activity 2.2

Activity 2.3

Subtopic 3: Methods and Strategies for Decision-Making

Activity 3.1

Activity 3.2

Activity 3.3

Module Summary

Developer Bio

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Glossary of Philosophical Terms, Acronyms, & Technical Terms


Abduction The act of intuiting an idea, or sense of real relation from a presenting situation. The moment of abduction in thinking is that play of imagination which obtains the whole of what something means, prior to its representation by reason. Abduction can be regarded as a necessary condition for all sensible, comprehensible representations. It is their aesthetic connection and ultimate basis for any practical understanding.
ADAP AIDS Drug Assistance Program
AIDS AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): Disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus.
aletheia Ancient Greek word for truth. Literally, the term means "undisclosedness" or "unconcealedness" which is to be understood by its root "lethe" with the negating "a" prefix. Lethe, the name of the mythical "river of forgetfulness, or concealment" as found in the Greek tradition's doctrine of reincarnation, is shown in this word to be negated. In regards to truth, truth becomes something that is everpresent, but concealed until uncovered by reason (logos).
arete Literally "excellence" and originally used by the ancient Greeks to denote the character of the brave and noble warrior. This is the word that translates into English as "virtue". In the broad sense it refers to human excellence, generally, and particularly to those markers of character which indicate a decided nobility of real connection between the individual and others.
authority Within the context of ethcial and political philosophy, authority refers to the power of authorship, including the right to author. In other words, it deals with the questions "Who's writing the rules?", and "Does this person have the right to write the rules?" Accordinglly, issues of authority quite often come down to questions of legitimacy, where those authors who lack legitimacy are excluded from consideration as an informal mistake in reasoning (fallacly).
autonomy A term that refers to the independence of the moral or ethical agent in decision-making.
axiology The study of value, value theory.
benificience An action that is beneficial in and of itself.
CARE Act (Ryan White Comprehensive AIDS Resources Emergency Act): The Federal legislation created to address the health care and service needs of people living with HIV disease and their families in the United States; enacted in 1990 and reauthorized in 1996.
CDC CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention): The Federal agency within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that administers HIV/AIDS prevention programs, including the HIV Prevention Community Planning process, among other programs; responsible for monitoring and reporting of infectious diseases; administers AIDS surveillance grants and publishes epidemiological reports such as the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report.
Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce, father of American Philosophy, was born in 1839 and died in 1914. A career man of science, Peirce worked for almost 30 years with the U.S. Geodetic Survey, a continuing survey and mapping of the oceans and continents of planet Earth. Except for a brief period during the early 1880's when he taught logic for the graduate program in philosophy at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Peirce never held an academic position. All the same, he is the author of numerous articles and published reviews, and left over 93,000 pages of manuscripts at the time of his death, which his widow donated to the Houghton Library of Harvard University. A certified copy of those papers is archived at the Center For Pragmatic Studies of Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas.
Deduction Generally, reasoning from universals to particulars, wholes to parts. Deductive thinking is thinking within the confines of represented reality, namely the limits established by concepts. In this respect, the concept is the universal, it is the whole.
definist A definist is one who holds that ethical terms such as "right", and evaluative terms such as "good", are definable in non-ethical, non-evaluative terms. In other words, the definist holds to a nominalist view of value whereby "worth is what I say it is". Ethical and evaluative terms are generally held to be normative.
deontology Philosophy of duty, a term that is often applied to the practical philosophy of Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), but which was originally coined by British Philosopher Jeremy Bentham to describe his own ethics, Utilitarianism.
Epidemic The spread of an infectious disease through a population or geographic area.
episteme Pure science, in the strict sense disinterested, objective, without "telos" meaning without further aim, hence the meaning "knowing for its own sake". This form of knowledge stands in contrast to techne which is knowing with purpose, i.e. practical knowledge. Episteme may also be translated as theoretical science.
epistemology Philosophy of Knowledge, from the ancient Greek words "episteme" and "logos".
ethike A compound word from the root terms "ethos" and "techne" which renders its literal meaning to be the "art or skill necessary to produce a showing of characteristic manner or spirit", a certain bonding "attitude" or sense of comportment toward others, conceived in practical terms. This word is the etymological ancestor of our word "ethics". Hence, ethics and its study aims at a practical understanding of this attitude, including that kind of judgment necessary to its disclosure.
ethos Characteristic manner or spirit, either of a community, or individual. This is a word that indicates a certain "attitude" or sense of comportment towards others, and generally asosciated with questions of character or moral selfhood, where character or moral selfhood disclose a bond with others.
form As found in logic, form refers to the structure of either a sentence, or an argument. In the case of a sentence, the form of the sentence is the layout of terms and operators.For example, the form of the sentence, All men are liars, is: All ( S ) are ( P ) where the letters S and P merely stand for "subject" and "predicate" respectively.
HIV Care Consortium A regional planning entity established by many State grantees under Title lI of the CARE Act to plan and sometimes administer Title II services; an association of health care and support service providers that develops and delivers services for PLWHs under Title II of the CARE Act.
HIV Disease The entire spectrum of the natural history of the human immunodeficiency virus, from post infection through the clinical definition of AIDS.
HRSA (Health Resources and Services Administration): The agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services that is responsible for administering the CARE Act.
Idea (eidos) The word means "image" and is used in philosophy, particularly ancient Greek philosophy to indicate "idea" or form. In Aristotle, we find eidos to be that set of qualities which a scientific definition (logos) analyzes into its constituent parts. Elsewhere, in Plato, Kant, and others, the idea is a knowable aesthetic sense of the whole, a clear intuitive grasp of synthetic relational meaning, as opposed to that order which is merely represented in human discourse.
Induction Generally, reasoning from particulars to universals, parts to wholes. Induction is that movement of thought from the moment a question is raised, to the moment a concept has been formed and thoroughly tested. Arguments which follow from inductive thought remain open-ended probabilities, meaning they are always subject to further testing, review, and updating. All practical arguments are ultimately inductive, and our understanding of those arguments is accordingly of a general nature and open.
inherent Something has inherent value if and onlly if the experience, awareness, or contemplation of that something has intrinsic value. Accordingly, if gazing into The Milky Way on a clear night has intrinsic value, then The Milky Way has inherent value.
instance In logic, the word applied to a logical sentence (forumla) or argument that contains actual content. For example, the sentence form "No S are P" can be seen in the instance of that form "No (students) are (lazy, or unwilling to put the necessary work into learning logic). In this case, "students" is the subject (S), while the predicate (P) is "lazy, or unwilling to put the necessary work into learning logic"
instrumental Value that is determined according to whether something is seen as a means, or causative contributor to something of instrinsic value.
intrinsic A sense of value found to rest within the "thing", whether that "thing" is conceived in the form of a tangible object, idea, or concept. The opposite of intrinsic value is "extrinsic" meaning from outside the "thing".
justice Generally fairness, understood to be something beneficial and to including paying this benefit to others. Within Plato's "Republic" and elsewhere, we find that acts which do not benefit towards whom they are directed are not just. Neither are they ethical.
Knowledge A true opinion tied down by reason.
logos This word is the ancient Greek term for "word" which beginning with Heraclitus (F. 500 B.C.E.) took on the broader, philosophical meaning, which is at bottom that which gives unity to thought, and by extension, our account of reality. In this sense, "logos" is synonomous with the word "reason" and by Aristotle's reckoning, our capacity (faculty of mind) to grasp and follow reason is the defining character of the human species. Also understood to indicate scientific definition, and representational discourse in general.
metaphysics A word that has come to mean the same thing as epistemology, distinguished mainly by way of its origin in the postumously given name to a work of Aristotle wherein he considers the science of "being as such" or question of cause (account of essential reality). That naming reflects the chronology of the work in relation to Aristotles' "Physics". The literal translation of metaphysics is "after physics". Metaphysics is also refered to as "First Philosophy".
methexis Participation.
mimesis Imitation.
mores The folkways and traditions of a people, a culture.
non-maleficience Not harmful
objectivity Public, meaing to have common access to any available evidence. Some may claim that whatever is objective is also free of bias, though this view is not supported by either logic or experience.
opinion (doxa) Opinion, unjustified in a logical sense, not yet tied down by way of reason (logos). In this regard, opinion may be true, but not presented in terms which make its claims stand as objective fact. For this reason, opinion is thought to be merely subjective, or private in its efficacy.
philosophy A compound word from the words "philo" (love) and "sophia" (wisdom), and generally taken to denote "love of wisdom". However, the inclusion of "sophia" may also indicate a certain sense of "techne" (art or skill) or practical wisdom, a meaning that would have attached to the word philosophy at the time of both Plato and Aristotle, though by some estimates, Aristotle seems to lean toward a more theoretical/contemplative rendering of the term in his own writings (see "phronesis"). Also, one ancient Latin commentator Diogenes Laertes remarked that the word "philosophy" was so much a part of ancient Greek language and culture, that it was impossible to translate into another language. Part of that difficulty lies in its practical implications which point toward a proactive way of being, namely the being of one who is a artful and skilled lover of practical understanding, i.e. knowing in the broadest sense. This is the meaning we find disclosed in the person of Socrates, the architypical philosopher.
phronesis Generally a term that means "wisdom" and often associated with "sophia" which also means wisdom. However, Aristotle distinguishes the wisdom of phronesis by assigning it a meaning associated with action, or movement (the reduction of potentiality to actuality), hence practical wisdom. Sophia, by Aristotle, is reserved for wisdom in the sense of theoretical wisdom, despite the fact that the term "sophia" originally denoted the wisdom of one with techne, namely an art or skill necessary to production, hence also practical. Reasonableness.
Plato Student of Socrates, teacher of Aristotle, Plato was the son of a wealthy Athenian aristocrat, born around 427 B.C.E. He is the author of the Socratic dialogues, and founder of The Academy. He died in either late 348 B.C.E. or early 347 B.C.E. In a surviving letter, he wrote that he never wrote down his own philosophy. This has precipitated a debate among scholars as to how one should regard the dialogues. One explanation is that they are teaching pieces, to be used by Academy students. Another is that they chronicle the life of his teacher Socrates. A third explanation is that one's philosophy is somethng that is lived, not written.
PLWH Person Living with HIV Disease.
politeia Literally "the body politic". This word denotes the peculiar bond which unites citizen with citizen to form the real community. The disclosure of that bond is the "ethos" or charactistic manner or spirit of community which is disclosed in both its informal and formal structures, hence the translation of this word into our English term "republic".
politike The root word for our English word "politics". This term is a compound made up of "polis" and "techne" with a subsequent meaning that is best rendered as the art or skill of practical statescraft.
Prevalence The total number of persons living with a specific disease or condition at a given time.
Prevalence Rate The proportion of a population living at a given time with a condition or disease (compared to the incidence rate, which refers to new cases).
Priority Setting The process used by a planning council or consortium to prioritize service categories, to ensure consistency with locally identified needs, and to address how best to meet each priority.
Protagoras (ca. 490-420 B.C.E.) Ancient Greek Sophist (teacher) of the fifth century B.C.E. whose thinking contributed to the development of dialectic and practical philosophy in general. Protagoras is best remembered for one of two surviving fragments which states "Of all things, the measure is man, of the things that are that they are; and of the things that are not that they are not." Protagoras lived in Abdera.
Public Health Surveillance An ongoing, systematic process of collecting, analyzing and using data on specific health conditions and diseases (e.g., Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance system for AIDS cases).
relational the understanding of meaning and value by the way things stand in relation to one another. Meaning and worth as understood in logic are relational grasps and the mapping of those relations.
Resource Allocation The legislatively mandated responsibility of planning councils to assign CARE Act dollars or percentages across specific service categories, using key information such as documented need, defined service priorities and other resources as part of the process.
SAMs (Self-Assessment Modules): Self-assessment tools for planning councils and consortia.
sophist From the ancient Greek word "sophia" meaning "wisdom" in the sense of possessing a certain art or skill (techne). This term was used as the name for teachers of rhetoric, and in that context took on the meaning of "clever" as in "clever speaker".
subjectivity personal, private in origin
tacit agreement An agreement based on acceptance without discussion. The term is important for understanding Socrates claim that anyone who choses to remain in the city of his or her birth without questioning or objecting to its laws, tacitly agrees to abide by those laws.
Target Population A population to be reached through some action or intervention; may refer to groups with specific demographic or geographic characteristics.
techne Ancient Greek word meaning "Art or Skill" that was originally used to refer to that kind of knowledge found among artisans or craftsmen, namely the knowledge necessary to produce the thing(s) associated with respective arts and crafts. For example, there is a techne, or skill associated with the art of a potter, namely everything the potter must know to produce a finished work, from the kind of clay to use to decorating it. At the time of Plato and Aristotle, this term had come to mean knowledge in the broadest sense and was applied to the arts and skills of mind, particularly the production or formation of concepts, i.e. rules for thought. It is also found in Aristotle to mean practical science. One interesting connection between this word and the name philosophy appears if we allow that "sophist" is part of the meaning of philosophy (despite the negative view of the Sophists we find in Plato). The name sophist indicates a person of art or skill, there the root word being Sophia, goddess of wisdom.
teleology Philosophy of ends, or purposes
telos Literally "end". This word is used in philosophy to denote the "end" or "ends" towards which thinking moves, e.g. for Aristotle, ethics is a matter of achieving the end of happiness.
Value The worth of something. Value can be understood as either intrinsic, instrumental, inherent, or relational.