Overview and Objectives
Main Topic
Subtopic 1: Physical Examination of Urine
1.1, 1.2, 1.3
  Subtopic 1 Summary
Subtopic 2: Chemical Testing
2.1, 2.2, 2.3
  Subtopic 2 Summary
Subtopic 3: Microscopic Examination of Urine Sediment
3.1, 3.2
  Subtopic 3 Summary
Module Summary

Module Developer

User Evaluation Form


  1. Weather PR, Burkitt HG, Daniels VG : Histologie fonctionnelle Manuel et Atlas. Traduit par Bellot J, Lange F, 1979, ed. MEDSI

  2. Kumar, Contran, Robin: Basic Pathology V ed. . WB Saunders, Philadelphia (1992)

  3. Wynngaarden JB & Smith LH. Cecil Textbook of Medecine. 18e ed. Philadelphia, 1988

  4. Professeurs Département de médecine, Université de Montréal. Le système rénal, Notes de cours, MMD 3206, ISBN 2-89414-036-3, 1986-1991

  5. Schumann BG. Cytodiagnostic Urinalysis for the Nephrology Pratice. Seminars in nephroloy;6,308-345,1986

  6. Addis T . Glomerular Nephritis, Macmillan, New York 1948: 1-339

  7. Métais P: Biochimie Clinique. 2e ed. Paris 1988, SIMEP

  8. Van Ypersele de Stihou. Néphropathie diabétique. in le Rein, tome I. Dans l’Encyclopédie médicochirurgicale. Edition technique 1994

  9. Cheson BD, DeBellis CC, Schumann GB. The Urinary Myeloma Cast. Frequency of detection and correlation in 30 patients with multiple myeloma. Am J Clin Pathol 83: 421-425, 1985

  10. Mandal AK. Analysis of Urinary Sediment by Transmission Electron Microscopy. in Haber M . Urinalysis: Clinics In Laboratory Medecine Vol. 8, No.3, 463-481 1988

  11. Nolan R. Eosinophiluria. in Haber M . Urinalysis : Clinics In Laboratory Medecine Vol. 8, No. 3, 555-565, 1988

  12. Segasothy M. Monoclonal Antibodies : Use in Urine Sediment Examination. in Haber M . Urinalysis: Clinics In Laboratory Medecine Vol. 8, No.3, 483-491, 1988

  13. Smolens P, Ventakachalam M, Stein JH. Myeloma Kidney Cast Nephropathy in a Rat Model of Multiple Myeloma. Kidney International 24: 192-204, 1983

  14. Stamey TA, Sexton CC. The role of vaginal colonization in recurrent urinary infection. J Urol 113: 214-217, 1975

  15. Schoolnik GK. How Escherichia Coli infects the urinary tract. N Engl J med 320: 804-805, 1989

  16. Lindner LE, Jones RN, Haber MH : A Specific Urinary Cast in acute pyelonephritis. Am J Clin Pathol 73: 809-811, 1980

  17. Fang L. Urinalysis in the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection. in Haber M . Urinalysis: Clinics In Laboratory Medecine Vol 8, No3, 567-576, 1988

  18. Holmquist N : Detection of Cancer with Urinary Sediment. J Urol 1980; 123: 188-189.

  19. Thudicom JLW: A Treatise on the Pathology of Urine. Londres, John Churchill, 1858

  20. Raymond JR, Yager WE: Abnormal Urine Color: A Differential Diagnosis. Southern Medical Journal 81, 837-840, 1988

  21. Lussier R. Standardisation de l'analyse d'urine. Conférence. Congrès SCTL/CPTMQ. Montréal 1991

  22. Haber Merryl H:>/A> Urinary Sediment a Textbook, Atlas American Society of Clinical Pathologist, 1981

  23. Statland BE. Tips on Technology "Urine Microscopy". MLO january: 11, 1985

  24. Schumann GB>/A>. in Clinical Chemistry; Theory, Analysis, and Correlation, Kaplan LA, Pesce AJ. St-Louis,III ed Mosby 1996

  25. Valenstein PN, Koepke JA: Unnecessary Microscopy in Routine Urinalysis. Am J Clin Pathol 82; 444-448, 1984

  26. Dion R, Bannon P,Lepage R, Lessard F,Joly JG: Une Nouvelle Approche de l'Analyse Microscopique des Urines. Congrès de la SQBC. Annales de Biochimie Clinique du Québec 24:81, 1985

  27. Dion R, Bannon P, Lessard F, Lepage R: Une Revue de l'analyse microscopique de l'urine. Annales de Biochimie Clinique du Québec 25; 44-57, 1986

  28. Schummann GB,Schumann JL : Coordinated Approach to the Urinary Sediment Examination. Lab Management 1: 45-46, 1983

  29. Stamey et Kindrachuk:>/A>Urinary Sediment and Urinalysis. A Practical Guide for the health Science Professional. Saunders Blue Books, 1985

  30. Lippmann RW . Urine and the Urinary Sediment 2 ed. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas, 1973.

  31. Schramek P,>/A> Moritsch A, Haschkowitz B, Binder BR, Maier M. In vitro Generation of Dysmorphic Erythrocytes. Kidney Int 36: 72-77, 1989

  32. Pillsworth T J,>/A> Haver V M, Abrass C K, Delaney C J. Differentiation of Renal from Non-Renal Hematuria by Microscopic Examination of Urine. Clin. Chem. 33/10, 1791-1795, 1987

  33. Wenk E R , Bhagavan BS, Rudert Joel . Tamm Horsfall Uromucoprotein and the Pathogesis of Cast, Reflux Nephropathy, and Nephritis. Pathobiology Annual 11, 229-257,1981

  34. Haber Merryl H: Urinary Sediment a Textbook, Atlas American Society of Clinical Pathologist, 1981

  35. Haber MH, Lindner LE :The Surface Ultrastructure of Urinary Cast. Am J Clin Pathol 68; 547-552, 1977

  36. Lindner LE, Vacca D, Haber MH: Identification and Composition of Types of Granular Urinary Cast. Am J Clin Pathol 80; 353-358. 1983

  37. Lindner LE, Haber MH : Hyaline Cast in the Urine. Mechanism of Formation and Morphologic Transformation. Am J Clin Pathol 80; 342-352, 1983

  38. Knörle R, Schnierle P, all: Tamm-Horsfall Glycoprotein: Role in Inhibition and Promotion of Renal Calcium Oxalate Stone Formation Studied with Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Clin. Chem. 40, 1739-1743, 1994.

  39. Conyers RAJ, Blais R, Rofe AM: The Relation of Clinical Catatrophes, Endogenous Oxalate Production, and Urolithiasis. Clin. Chem. 36/10, 1717-1730, 1990

  40. Berg JD, Schnapp HJ, Hesse A, Hienzsch E. Crystaloptical and Spectroscopical Finding with Calcium Oxalate Crystals in the Urinary Sediment. Eur. Urol 2: 92-97. 1976

  41. Ringsrud KM, Linné JJ: Urinalysis And Body Fluid, A Color Text and Atlas. Mosby Year Books, St-Louis 1995.