Overview and Objectives
Main Topic
Subtopic 1: Physical Examination of Urine
1.1, 1.2, 1.3
  Subtopic 1 Summary
Subtopic 2: Chemical Testing
2.1, 2.2, 2.3
  Subtopic 2 Summary
Subtopic 3: Microscopic Examination of Urine Sediment
3.1, 3.2
  Subtopic 3 Summary
Module Summary

Module Developer

User Evaluation Form

Subtopic 3 Summary

Results of the microscopic examination of urine can give a physician a more detailed picture about the underlying disease or condition of a patient?s urinary tract. Variations in normal parameters can include detection of microorganisms, crystals, casts and other microscopic elements. These observations can often assist the physician in pin-pointing what and where conditions of the urinary tract are occurring. For best results of microscopic examination of urine, should be evaluated immediately and by closely following proper protocols established by the laboratory procedures.


  1. List the normal values for RBC, WBC, casts, and bacteria.

  2. Name the protein that makes up the matrix of casts.

  3. Name three abnormal crystals.

  4. What is the typical shape or common name given to triple phosphate crystals?

  1. RBC (rare), WBC (0-4), casts (occasional, hyaline), bacteria (none, negative)

  2. Tamm-Horsfall protein

  3. Leucine, tyrosine, cystine (could take cholesterol)

  4. Coffin lid