Overview and Objectives
Main Topic
Subtopic 1: Physical Examination of Urine
1.1, 1.2, 1.3
  Subtopic 1 Summary
Subtopic 2: Chemical Testing
2.1, 2.2, 2.3
  Subtopic 2 Summary
Subtopic 3: Microscopic Examination of Urine Sediment
3.1, 3.2
  Subtopic 3 Summary
Module Summary

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Subtopic 1 Summary

Results of the physical examination of urine can give important clues to the physician about the underlying disease or condition of a patient. Variations in the normal parameters of a urine specimen can be seen in changes of color, appearance and volume. For best results of the physical examination of urine the specimen should be evaluated immediately after voiding.


  1. What are the normal observations that make up the macroscopic or physical component of the urinalysis examination?

  2. What compound is responsible for giving urine its color?

  3. What is the color of urine that contains bilirubin?

  4. What is the normal transparency of urine?


  1. Color, turbidity, odor, specific gravity

  2. Urochrome

  3. Dark yellow-brown or green-brown

  4. Clear