Overview and Objectives
Main Topic
Subtopic 1: Physical Examination of Urine
1.1, 1.2, 1.3
  Subtopic 1 Summary
Subtopic 2: Chemical Testing
2.1, 2.2, 2.3
  Subtopic 2 Summary
Subtopic 3: Microscopic Examination of Urine Sediment
3.1, 3.2
  Subtopic 3 Summary
Module Summary

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Subtopic 2 Summary

Results of the chemical examination of urine can give a physician a more complete picture about the underlying disease or condition of a patient. Variations in the normal parameters of pH, glucose, protein, ketones, bilirubin, blood, leukocyte esterease, nitirites, specific gravity, and urobilinogen can often assist in giving directionto the physician on how to proceed with a patient's diagnosis or therapy. For best results of chemical examination of urine, the specimen should be evaluated by closely following the manufacturer's directions.


  1. What ten chemical tests are part of the chemical examination of urine?

  2. Name the confirmatory tests used in urinalysis?

  3. Name the test that can be used for reducing sugars other than glucose?

  4. What abnormal condition is often associated with positive glucose test?
  1. pH, protein, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, blood/Hgb, urobilinogen, nitrite, leukocyte esterase, specific gravity

  2. Protein (SSA), reducing sugars (Clinitest), ketone (Acetest), bilirubin (Ictotest)

  3. Clinitest

  4. Diabetes mellitus